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Microbiology – Full Definition
Microbiology – Full Definition Definition of Microbiology
Microbiology – The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses. Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. This includes eukaryotes such as fungi and protists and prokaryotes such as bacteria and certain algae. Viruses are also included. Microbiology subdivided into divisions including bacteriology, virology, mycology, parasitology and others. A scientist who specializes in the area of microbiology is called a microbiologist. Microbiology can be divided into several subdisciplines, including:
Microbial physiology: The study of how the microbial cell functions biochemically. Includes the study of microbial growth, microbial metabolism and microbial cell structure.
Microbial genetics: The study of how genes are organised and regulated in microbes in relation to their cellular functions. Closely related to the field of molecular biology.
Molecular Microbiology: The study of the molecular biology and genomics of microorganisms.
Medical microbiology: The study of the role of microbes in human illness. Includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology.
Veterinary microbiology: The study of the role in microbes in veterinary medicine or animal taxonomy.
Environmental microbiology: The study of the function and diversity of microbes in their natural environments. Includes the study of microbial ecology, microbially-mediated nutrient cycling, geomicrobiology, microbial diversity and bioremediation. Characterisation of key bacterial habitats such as the rhizosphere and phyllosphere.
Evolutionary microbiology: The study of the evolution of microbes. Includes the study of bacterial systematics and taxonomy.
Industrial microbiology: The exploitation of microbes for use in industrial processes. Examples include industrial fermentation and wastewater treatment. Closely linked to the biotechnology industry. This field also includes brewing, an important application of microbiology.
Aeromicrobiology: The study of airborne microorganisms.
Food Microbiology: The study of microorganisms causing food spoilage.
Pharmaceutical microbiology: the study of microorganisms causing pharmaceutical contamination and spoillage.